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A toolbox for decoding BCI commands based on event-related potentials

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Front Hum Neurosci. 2024 Mar 4;18:1358809. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2024.1358809. eCollection 2024.


Commands in brain-computer interface (BCI) applications often rely on the decoding of event-related potentials (ERP). For instance, the P300 potential is frequently used as a marker of attention to an oddball event. Error-related potentials and the N2pc signal are further examples of ERPs used for BCI control. One challenge in decoding brain activity from the electroencephalogram (EEG) is the selection of the most suitable channels and appropriate features for a particular classification approach. Here we introduce a toolbox that enables ERP-based decoding using the full set of channels, while automatically extracting informative components from relevant channels. The strength of our approach is that it handles sequences of stimuli that encode multiple items using binary classification, such as target vs. nontarget events typically used in ERP-based spellers. We demonstrate examples of application scenarios and evaluate the performance of four openly available datasets: a P300-based matrix speller, a P300-based rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) speller, a binary BCI based on the N2pc, and a dataset capturing error potentials. We show that our approach achieves performances comparable to those in the original papers, with the advantage that only conventional preprocessing is required by the user, while channel weighting and decoding algorithms are internally performed. Thus, we provide a tool to reliably decode ERPs for BCI use with minimal programming requirements.

PMID:38505100 | PMC:PMC10949531 | DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2024.1358809

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