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Enlarged perivascular spaces are associated with white matter injury, cognition and inflammation in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy

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Brain Commun. 2024 Mar 8;6(2):fcae071. doi: 10.1093/braincomms/fcae071. eCollection 2024.

ABSTRACT

Enlarged perivascular spaces have been previously reported in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, but their significance and pathophysiology remains unclear. We investigated associations of white matter enlarged perivascular spaces with classical imaging measures, cognitive measures and plasma proteins to better understand what enlarged perivascular spaces represent in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy and whether radiographic measures of enlarged perivascular spaces would be of value in future therapeutic discovery studies for cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy. Twenty-four individuals with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy and 24 age- and sex-matched controls were included. Disease status was determined based on the presence of NOTCH3 mutation. Brain imaging measures of white matter hyperintensity, brain parenchymal fraction, white matter enlarged perivascular space volumes, clinical and cognitive measures as well as plasma proteomics were used in models. White matter enlarged perivascular space volumes were calculated via a novel, semiautomated pipeline, and levels of 7363 proteins were quantified in plasma using the SomaScan assay. The relationship of enlarged perivascular spaces with global burden of white matter hyperintensity, brain atrophy, functional status, neurocognitive measures and plasma proteins was modelled with linear regression models. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy and control groups did not exhibit differences in mean enlarged perivascular space volumes. However, increased enlarged perivascular space volumes in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy were associated with increased white matter hyperintensity volume (β = 0.57, P = 0.05), Clinical Dementia Rating Sum-of-Boxes score (β = 0.49, P = 0.04) and marginally with decreased brain parenchymal fraction (β = -0.03, P = 0.10). In interaction term models, the interaction term between cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy disease status and enlarged perivascular space volume was associated with increased white matter hyperintensity volume (β = 0.57, P = 0.02), Clinical Dementia Rating Sum-of-Boxes score (β = 0.52, P = 0.02), Mini-Mental State Examination score (β = -1.49, P = 0.03) and marginally with decreased brain parenchymal fraction (β = -0.03, P = 0.07). Proteins positively associated with enlarged perivascular space volumes were found to be related to leukocyte migration and inflammation, while negatively associated proteins were related to lipid metabolism. Two central hub proteins were identified in protein networks associated with enlarged perivascular space volumes: CXC motif chemokine ligand 8/interleukin-8 and C-C motif chemokine ligand 2/monocyte chemoattractant protein 1. The levels of CXC motif chemokine ligand 8/interleukin-8 were also associated with increased white matter hyperintensity volume (β = 42.86, P = 0.03), and levels of C-C motif chemokine ligand 2/monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 were further associated with decreased brain parenchymal fraction (β = -0.0007, P < 0.01) and Mini-Mental State Examination score (β = -0.02, P < 0.01) and increased Trail Making Test B completion time (β = 0.76, P < 0.01). No proteins were associated with all three studied imaging measures of pathology (brain parenchymal fraction, enlarged perivascular spaces, white matter hyperintensity). Based on associations uncovered between enlarged perivascular space volumes and cognitive functions, imaging and plasma proteins, we conclude that white matter enlarged perivascular space volumes may capture pathologies contributing to chronic brain dysfunction and degeneration in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy.

PMID:38495305 | PMC:PMC10943571 | DOI:10.1093/braincomms/fcae071

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